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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-10

Assessment of the outcomes of eating additional fruits or nuts on periodontal condition – A clinical study


1 Resident, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Vyas Dental College and Hospital, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
2 Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health Dentistry, ITS Dental College and Hospital, Muradnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Resident, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Vyas Dental College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
4 Resident, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Vyas Dental College and Hospital, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Submission18-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance03-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication24-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ajaz Ahmed Dar
Resident, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Vyas Dental College and Hospital, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_2_22

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  Abstract 


Background: Periodontal condition is a multifaceted chronic inflammatory condition that necessitates the formation of a pathogenic biofilm, the countenance of which is influenced by a variety of host-dependent factor grounds. The goal of the analyses presented in this article was to establish the outcomes of a huge upsurge in fruit or nut consumption on probing pocket depth.
Materials and Methods: After the baseline investigations, the participants were randomly assigned to eat an extra 7kcal/kg body weight/day of additional fruit or nuts by drawing ballots. The ratio of randomization was 1:1. When the entire sums of probing pocket depths of the participants that were a minimum of 4-mm deep were compared amid groups, the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.012).
Conclusion: This randomized trial found no evidence that eating a lot of fruits had a deleterious impact on periodontal condition or infection.

Keywords: Fruits or nuts, periodontal condition, probing pocket depth


How to cite this article:
Dar AA, Nissar I, Shaktawat N, Sharma S, Bhati RS, Tomar M. Assessment of the outcomes of eating additional fruits or nuts on periodontal condition – A clinical study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res 2022;9:8-10

How to cite this URL:
Dar AA, Nissar I, Shaktawat N, Sharma S, Bhati RS, Tomar M. Assessment of the outcomes of eating additional fruits or nuts on periodontal condition – A clinical study. Int J Prev Clin Dent Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 19];9:8-10. Available from: https://www.ijpcdr.org/text.asp?2022/9/1/8/340841




  Introduction Top


Periodontal infection is a complicated chronic inflammatory condition that necessitates the formation of a pathogenic biofilm whose manifestation is influenced by several host-dependent factors. The qualitative as well as quantitative contributions of the several factor causes to condition onset and/or progression differ from patient to patient, consequential in a clinical phenotype that is highly heterogeneous. In combination with local anatomical features, the same exposures appear to influence condition severity and extent. The body's homeostatic maintenance systems fail to resolve a dysregulation of chronic inflammatory processes, consequential in a fiasco to eradicate pathogenic factors of the subgingival biofilm along with the permanency of chronic nonresolving infection. Diet might have an imperative part in the development of gingivitis, according to animal studies.[1],[2],[3],[4] In humans, studies[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10] showed that individuals who ate a high-carbohydrate diet developed gingivitis more than individuals who ate a low-carbohydrate diet. In humans, an upsurge in dietary sucrose has been linked to upsurged plaque accumulation as well as a sign of gingivitis.[11],[12] In clinical efforts to diminish the scope of gingivitis, an estimation of sucrose consumption trailed by appropriate dietary alterations appears to be apt. The goal of the analyses presented here was to see what outcomes a huge upsurge in fruit or nut consumption had on probing pocket depths.


  Materials and Procedures Top


All procedures performed in the study were conducted in accordance with the ethics standards given in 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2013. The study proposal was submitted for approval and clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of our institution. A written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Periodontal parameters, dental caries, along with dental erosions were all recorded during the dental examination. The participants were given scales (Soehnle 66100) in addition to notebooks to weigh as well as record food items ingested over 3 days before the study and at the conclusion. [13] After the baseline investigations, the participants were randomly assigned to eat an extra 7kcal/kg body weight/day of additional fruit or nuts by drawing ballots. The ratio of randomization was 1:1. IBM SPSS Statistics 23 was used to calculate statistical estimates (IBM Corporation, Somers, NY, USA). For normally distributed data, Student's paired as well as unpaired two-tailed t-tests were utilized to compare within and amid groups. The two-sided P = 0.05 test is used to establish statistical significance.


  Results Top


Fifteen men and 15 women (5 men and 10 women in the fruit group, along with 9 men as well as 6 women in the nut group) having a mean age of 24.34.6 years having a mean body mass index of 24.2 1.8 kg/m2 took part in the study. Except for two partakers, who said they brushed teeth twice a day, everyone else said they only brushed teeth once a day. During the study, none of the partakers changed how often they brushed their teeth. According to the diet registrations, fructose consumption upsurged in the fruit group but decreased in the nut group (P = 0.0001 for change amid groups). As shown in [Table 1], there was a decrease in the entire number of probing pockets having a depth of 4 mm or more in the fruit group, while there was an inclination toward an upsurge in this parameter in subjects randomly assigned to eat more nuts. When the entire sums of probing pocket depths of the partakers that were a minimum of 4-mm deep were compared amid groups, the difference was statistically significant [Table 1] and P = 0.012].
Table 1: Dental status before and after the interventions in the two groups

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  Discussion Top


The change in probing pocket depths in this cohort of nonobese conditions young subjects was not linked to systemic infection, according to our findings. Post hoc analysis of the influence of the chosen fruit's acidity level in the current study revealed similar trends in subjects who chose fruits of varying acidities. We could not find any variations in plasma levels of vitamins or other micronutrients in any of the groups that replicated the outcomes on dental conditions. However, future research on this topic could look into a variety of other nutrients and antioxidants. Nevertheless, any protecting constituent in the fruits would have to be communal in the fruits for the reason that our design permitted partakers to elect their own fruits as well as eat berries.[14],[15] We call for more randomized trials on this vital ailment subject appropriate to build a solid foundation for dietary commendations intended at improving the dental condition and reducing sugar-induced infection. Only one prospective randomized controlled research of the outcomes of nutritional supplements on periodontal conclusions of rational interval has been published to the best of our knowledge. Chapple et al.[16] conducted this study, which was grounded on a cohort of patients having chronic periodontitis. The partakers in Chapple et al. studies were randomly allocated to one of three groups as well as given capsules comprising concentrates of fruits along with vegetables, fruits, vegetables, as well as berries, or placebo. All partakers received these capsules along with nonsurgical periodontal treatment. After 2 months, Chapple et al.[16] discovered that a blend of fruit in addition to vegetable concentrate, in precise, reduced pocket depth when equated to placebo. Our conclusions are in accordance with those of Chapple et al., as well as both trials suggest that micronutrients can protect dental conditions. Nevertheless, because of the trial by Chapple et al.[16] used capsules, an supplementary local effect from acids or sugars from the nutrients, which was element of current research, was avoided.


  Conclusion Top


This randomized trial found no evidence that eating a lot of fruits had a deleterious impact on periodontal condition or infection. In contrast, we observed that eating more fruit upsurged the entire of probing pocket depths when compared to eating more nuts. It would be fascinating to learn more about whether there are explicit micronutrients in fruits that can help to prevent gingivitis and infection caused by the high sugar content of many fruits.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Carlsson J, Egelberg J. Local effect of diet on plaque formation and development of gingivitis in dogs. II. Effect of high carbohydrate versus high protein-fat diets. Odontol Revy 1965;16:42-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Egelberg J. Local effect of diet on plaque formation and development of gingivitis in dogs. l. Effect of hard and soft diets. Odontol Revy 1965;16:31-41.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sidi AD, Ashley FP. Influence of frequent sugar consumptions on experimental gingivitis. J Periodontol 1984;55:419-23.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Pfister W, Sprössig M, Gängler P, Mirgorod M. Bacteriological characterization of gingivitis-inducing plaque depending on different sugar levels of the diet. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A 1984;257:364-71.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Shearer B, Hall P, Clarke P, Marshall G, Kinane DF. Reducing variability and choosing ideal subjects for experimental gingivitis studies. J Clin Periodontol 2005;32:784-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Deinzer R, Weik U, Kolb-Bachofen V, Herforth A. Comparison of experimental gingivitis with persistent gingivitis: Differences in clinical parameters and cytokine concentrations. J Periodontal Res 2007;42:318-24.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Persson GR, DeRouen TA, Page RC. Relationship between gingival crevicular fluid levels of aspartate aminotransferase and active tissue destruction in treated chronic periodontitis patients. J Periodontal Res 1990;25:81-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Hugoson A, Sjödin B, Norderyd O. Trends over 30 years, 1973-2003, in the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 2008;35:405-14.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Romao C, Wennstrom JL. Periodontal conditions in a Swedish city population of adolescents: A comparison amid smokers and never-smokers. Oral Cond Prev Dent 2007;5:105-12.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Abrahamsson KH, Koch G, Norderyd O, Romao C, Wennström JL. Periodontal conditions in a Swedish city population of adolescents: A cross-sectional study. Swed Dent J 2006;30:25-34.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Kerr NW. Prevalence and natural history of periodontal disease in Scotland – The medieval period (900-1600 A.D.). J Periodontal Res 1991;26:346-54.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Agebratt C, Strom E, Romu T, Dahlqvist-Leinhard O, Borga M, Leandersson P, et al. A randomized study of the outcomes of additional fruit and nuts consumption on hepatic fat content, cardiovascular risk factors and basal metabolic rate. PLoS One 2016;11:e0147149.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Orozco AH, Franco AM, Ramirez-Yañez GO. Periodontal treatment needs in a native island community in Colombia determined with CPITN. Int Dent J 2004;54:73-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Loe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand 1963;21:533-51.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Chapple IL, Milward MR, Ling-Mountford N, Weston P, Carter K, Askey K, et al. Adjunctive daily supplementation with encapsulated fruit, vegetable and berry juice powder concentrates and clinical periodontal outcomes: A double-blind RCT. J Clin Periodontol 2012;39:62-72.  Back to cited text no. 16
    



 
 
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