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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2022
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 21-61

Online since Tuesday, June 28, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Comparative evaluation of crestal bone level between alumina-blasted /acid –etched surface treated implant and calcium phosphate surface treated implant”- an in vivo study p. 21
Gattu Balram Pramod Kumar, A Kalyan Chakravarthy, Nukalamarri Om Brahma Prasad Chary, Kukutla Sai Amulya, Kumbham Kiran Babu, Deepika Poleypally
DOI:10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_9_22  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the crestal bone level between alumina-blasted/acid-etched (AB/AE) surface-treated implant and calcium phosphate surface-treated implant” based on the radiological examination. Materials and Methods: An in vivo study was undertaken to evaluate the crestal bone loss on mesial and distal aspects of implants categorized into two groups with different surface treatments, Group A: AB/AE surface-treated implant and Group B: calcium phosphate surface-treated implant using standardized intraoral periapical at three different intervals, i.e., immediately after implant placement, at the end of 3, and 6 months after placing the implants. Statistical tests used were Student's unpaired t-test and ANOVA. Results: The bone loss was measured, and values were recorded immediately after implant placement, 3, and 6 months of placement. Conclusions: The use of calcium phosphate surface-treated implants minimizes crestal bone loss compared to AB/AE. This may increase the longevity of implants.
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A study to assess knowledge of periodontal disease among university students in Assam p. 27
Purobi Choudhury
DOI:10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_13_22  
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of oral health knowledge of periodontal disease among nondental university students. Materials and Methods: One hundred university students (mean age 20.1 years ± 2.5) were recruited into this study. The participants completed a structured questionnaire during a personal interview. The questionnaire consisted of items to assess participants' personal data (age, gender, level of study, and specialty) and oral heath knowledge related to periodontal disease. Statistical significance was based on probability values of <0.05. Results: Participants showed poor knowledge of causes, signs, symptoms, and preventive measures of gum disease. Only 49% of first-year and 60% of final-year students said yes as an answer. The level of the study had no relationship with students' knowledge of the initiating factors of periodontal disease but had a significant relationship with the knowledge of periodontal disease's signs, preventive measures, and relations to general health and systemic disease. Students from scientific disciplines had more knowledge of periodontal disease's causes, preventive measures, and relations to general health and systemic disease than those from humanity disciplines. Conclusions: There were significant differences in oral health knowledge regarding periodontal disease between students from different levels of studies and different disciplines.
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Oral health status and treatment needs among Group D workers of four government hospitals in Bengaluru p. 31
T Sangeeta, Y S Prasanna Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_14_22  
Aim and Objectives of the Study: The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among Group D workers of four government hospitals in Bengaluru and the objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries, periodontal health status, oral mucosal lesions, and treatment needs and to know the possible relationship between low socioeconomic status and this particular occupation with oral health status. Materials and Methodology: A total of 800 Group D workers were examined according to the WHO Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form 1997, and the required data were collected in a prepared format consisting of sociodemographic details, habits, oral hygiene practices, and few questions to assess their knowledge and awareness. The oral cavity of the workers was examined using CPI probe and mouth mirror plane. Results: About 283 (35.4%) workers had one or the other forms of oral mucosal lesions of these, majority (102; 12.8%) had Chewer's mucosa, 67 (8.4%) had smoker's melanosis, 58 (7.3%) had leukedema, 27 (3.4%) had leukoplakia, 17 (2.1%) had oral submucous fibrosis, 8 (1%) had smoker's palate, and 2 (0.3%) had lichen planus. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there is a strong relationship between poor oral health status and higher treatment needs with the low social class, low educational levels, and occupation.
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Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of nonalcoholic extracts of crude coconut shell oil, orange peel, and mango leaf with that of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans: An in vitro study p. 37
Joby Peter, R Krishna Kumar, S Vijai, Melvin Augustin, MS Anaswara, Ambili Ajaykumar
DOI:10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_12_22  
Background: The use of plant extracts, as well as other alternative forms of medical treatments, is enjoying great popularity since late 1990s. Scientists from all over the have found literally thousands of phytochemicals which have inhibitory effects on all types of microorganisms in vitro. Moreover, there are the reports of potential hazards and microbial resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Aim: The objective of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of various concentrations of nonalcoholic extracts of crude coconut shell oil, orange peel, and mango leaf with that of xylitol on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Microbial strains were procured and revived on nutrient agar media. Coconut shell oil extract was prepared by heating ground shell in an earth pot for 3 h. Mango leaf extract was collected by powdering them using a blender and water extracts were prepared using agitation method. Orange peel extract was collected from the fresh peels of oranges which was pureed in a blender. The puree was subjected to hydrodistillation. The oil was separated. 10 g of Xylitol was dissolved in 10 ml of distilled water for base extract. 25%, 50%, 100%, and 200% dilutions of the extracts and xylitol were prepared. The susceptibility of the oral pathogens was determined by the well diffusion method. The extracts were pipetted into the wells and then incubated at 37°C overnight. After overnight incubation, the diameter of the clear zone produced was measured in cm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was evaluated by the microdilution method. Serial dilutions of the extracts and xylitol were added to the wells prepared in the agar plate along with nutrient broth and culture. The plates were placed in an incubator at 37°C for 24 h. The absence of turbidity in the wells was recorded as MIC. Results: Highest zone of inhibition was recorded for coconut shell extract against both the test organisms followed by Xylitol. Mango leaf extract and orange peel extract could not demonstrate statistically significant results. The inhibitory effect increased with increasing concentration. MIC of coconut shell extract against C. albicans and S. mutans was found out to be 37.5 mg and 25 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of the study, it may be concluded that antibacterial and antifungal effect of nonalcoholic extracts of crude coconut shell extract is more when compared to mango leaf, orange peel, and xylitol. Mango leaf and orange peel extracts showed minimum activity.
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Frequency of MB2 in maxillary first and second molars in Gujarati population: An in vitro study p. 45
Nimisha Chaudhary, Vaishali Kalburge, Dharmendra Shah, Ketan Prajapati, Malvi Thakkar, Rohit Thakkar
DOI:10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_8_22  
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of second mesiobuccal canal in maxillary first and second molars. Materials and Methods: Maxillary fifty first molars and fifty second molars were collected and embedded into plaster blocks. The teeth were photographed digitally from the occlusal aspect using a stereomicroscope under standard (×8) magnification. The occlusal portions of crowns were then sectioned at cement–enamel junction with slow-speed diamond disk. To gain straight line visibility, overhung dentin over the canal orifices was removed with safe-tip diamond bur. Once again, the teeth were photographed from their occlusal aspect under the same magnification and exposure conditions. Results: MB2 canals were detected 76% and 64% in first and second molars, respectively.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

An overview of the oral primary preventive measures at public/community level in India p. 48
Nilima Vaghela
DOI:10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_10_22  
Due importance is given to the primary level of prevention where the action is taken before the onset of the disease so that the disease exists no longer. Oral diseases are a major public health problem, and their burden is on increase in many low- and middle-income countries. Dental public health (DPH) aims to improve the oral health of the population through preventive and curative services. However, its achievements in India are being questioned probably because of lack of proficiency and skill among personnel. The present review study focuses on some of the important aspects relating to oral primary preventive measures at public/community level in India such as priority for oral health, DPH workforce and curriculum, and utilization of DPH personnel in providing primary oral health care. It was concluded that more attention should be given toward preventive oral health care by employing more number of dentists in public sector, strengthening DPH education and research, and combining oral health programs with general health-care programs.
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Building and Sustaining the Health-care Workforce of the Future for COVID-19 and Beyond p. 52
Vinit Shashikant Patil, K Sidhulal, Nilima Vaghela, Uzma Belgaumi, K Azhar Mubarak, P. P Javad Ebn Mohammed Abdulla
DOI:10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_11_22  
The forces in play during the COVID-19 pandemic-driven slowdown and recession have affected the demand for health care, and consequently, the willingness of hospitals, health-care systems, and clinician group practices to continue employing health-care workers at prepandemic levels. The pandemic also has reduced the willingness of some health-care professionals to continue working in health care, independent of shifts in the demand of their services. To ensure that it continues to be responsive to community needs, and the workforce continues to be capable of delivering positive patient and community outcomes, the sector needs to develop early and proactive strategies to transition to effect positive cultural change. In this review of the literature, we have discussed the COVID-19 pandemic-related effects signal for the global health-care workforce in future is important to consider. Proactive planning and preparation today with an eye to tomorrow are critical; the health of the country's future generations depends on it.
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CASE REPORT Top

Lateral pedicle graft – A predictable treatment option for isolated gingival recession p. 56
Shirish Kumar Kujur, Vineeta Gupta, VS Sreeraj, KR Anuraj, Sheetal Dahiya
DOI:10.4103/ijpcdr.ijpcdr_15_22  
Marginal gingival recession is a typical source of worry, especially when it occurs in the anterior teeth as a result of functional and esthetic issues. Recession can cause esthetic degeneration, dentin hypersensitivity, and the inability to undertake regular oral hygiene practices. Gingival recession problems have been treated with a variety of surgical procedures. This article discusses a case where the lateral pedicle technique was used to successfully cover the root of a single tooth. The soft tissue next to the recession is positioned over the defect in this approach. This resulted in a periodontium that was both esthetically and functionally healthy, as well as positive patient acceptability. A clinically substantial level of root coverage was achieved as a result of this operation.
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